As the COVID-19 pandemic spreads, state policymakers are faced with difficult and critically important problems. Many people may lack comprehensive health insurance to get screened and treated without financial barriers to access. Many others, potentially in the millions, will be losing employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). While awaiting additional federal support, many governors, state legislators, Medicaid agencies, and state insurance regulators are leveraging their existing authorities to meet residents’ needs. This analysis catalogs key policy options states are pursuing or considering as part of their emergency response to COVID-19, focusing on the coverage provided by Medicaid and private insurance.